Attach a transmitter
In short, the glue is applied to the transmitter surface and the skin and/or hair surface of the bat (cut a few hairs for better contact, or fold them sideways). Press the transmitters against the skin after a short drying period (1-4 minutes) and hold for a few seconds to ensure that skin and transmitter make good contact. In some cases it can be advised to glue the fur around the edge on top of the transmitter. Make sure the bat is still able to fly (the bat should still be able to arch its back).
Do not overdo the application of the glue to either surface, this will increase the total weight of the burden for the bat. It is now important to prevent the bat from scratching at and potentially loosening the tag before the glue fully sets. Therefore, hold the bat for another 10-30 minutes to make sure that the glue has set completely before releasing the animals.
Advice
• Catching an animal needed for telemetry takes a lot of time. Always carry a spare tag, just in case!
• Routinely check the frequency of the transmitters before releasing the animal.
• Once transmitter attachment is complete, the animal should be carefully observed before release. Short-term behaviours such as attempting to shake off a tag will generally cease when the animal becomes accustomed to carrying the transmitter. These behaviours should be distinguished from more serious effects such as improper balance and impeded movement which will require intervention.
• Test all equipment (antenna, receiver) before releasing the animal

Locating a transmitter
Bats are relative difficult to locate with telemetry. They are very mobile, sometimes flying very fast. Visual observations are almost impossible and will sometimes disturbe the bats behaviour. Bats are mosly located with triangulation. The accuracy of a radio-location varies with habitat type and may result in biased estimates of observed habitat use.

Triangulation
Triangulation requires finding the intersection of two or more bearings to determine one location. An error polygon can be calculated around the point estimate, resulting in a measure of precision equivalent to the area of the polygon. The size and shape of the error polygon is determined by:
• the accuracy of the directional antenna
• the distance between the two receiving points
• the distance of the transmitter from the receiving points
• the angle of the transmitter from the receiving points.
The most accurate estimate of an animal's location is obtained by receiving fixes that are closest to the animal and at 90o from each other. To reduce the size of the error polygon, three bearings can be taken and the animal's location estimated from the centre of the intersections. The error polygon formed by three radio bearing lines should be small enough to accurately place the animal in a single habitat polygon. If the location is near an edge, additional bearings should be obtained to accurately locate the animal on the map.
Problem: signal bounce
A common source of error is signal bounce. Signal bounce occurs most frequently in mountainous terrain where a signal is deflected by a mountain, resulting in potential errors of many kilometres. The most effective way to overcome signal bounce during ground tracking is to take many bearings from several different places. When all signals appear to be coming from the same point then there is a good chance that the animal has been located correctly. However, if the signals are coming from a number of different points then signal bounce is likely still occurring.

Practical advice
• With a directional antenna, before starting to track an animal always make a 180o bearing (make sure you are going in the right way)
• If possible, establish some standard base points from where bearing can be taken. If possible these points should be positioned in open landscape and should have easy distinguishing characteristics (for repeated use).
• Take repeat bearings over a short time period, especially if the animal is active. It is always possible to not use some data points afterwards
• Get as close to the animal as possible.
• Always turn the gain and the volume down. This way changes in sound level (for example animal is leaving) are easier noticeable.

Method
• 
• 
Attach a transmitter
In short, the glue is applied to the transmitter surface and the skin and/or hair surface of the bat (cut a few hairs for better contact, or fold them sideways). Press the transmitters against the skin after a short drying period (1-4 minutes) and hold for a few seconds to ensure that skin and transmitter make good contact. In some cases it can be advised to glue the fur around the edge on top of the transmitter. Make sure the bat is still able to fly (the bat should still be able to arch its back).
Do not overdo the application of the glue to either surface, this will increase the total weight of the burden for the bat. It is now important to prevent the bat from scratching at and potentially loosening the tag before the glue fully sets. Therefore, hold the bat for another 10-30 minutes to make sure that the glue has set completely before releasing the animals.
Advice
• Catching an animal needed for telemetry takes a lot of time. Always carry a spare tag, just in case!
• Routinely check the frequency of the transmitters before releasing the animal.
• Once transmitter attachment is complete, the animal should be carefully observed before release. Short-term behaviours such as attempting to shake off a tag will generally cease when the animal becomes accustomed to carrying the transmitter. These behaviours should be distinguished from more serious effects such as improper balance and impeded movement which will require intervention.
• Test all equipment (antenna, receiver) before releasing the animal

Locating a transmitter
Bats are relative difficult to locate with telemetry. They are very mobile, sometimes flying very fast. Visual observations are almost impossible and will sometimes disturbe the bats behaviour. Bats are mosly located with triangulation. The accuracy of a radio-location varies with habitat type and may result in biased estimates of observed habitat use.

Triangulation
Triangulation requires finding the intersection of two or more bearings to determine one location. An error polygon can be calculated around the point estimate, resulting in a measure of precision equivalent to the area of the polygon. The size and shape of the error polygon is determined by:
• the accuracy of the directional antenna
• the distance between the two receiving points
• the distance of the transmitter from the receiving points
• the angle of the transmitter from the receiving points.
The most accurate estimate of an animal's location is obtained by receiving fixes that are closest to the animal and at 90o from each other. To reduce the size of the error polygon, three bearings can be taken and the animal's location estimated from the centre of the intersections. The error polygon formed by three radio bearing lines should be small enough to accurately place the animal in a single habitat polygon. If the location is near an edge, additional bearings should be obtained to accurately locate the animal on the map.
Problem: signal bounce
A common source of error is signal bounce. Signal bounce occurs most frequently in mountainous terrain where a signal is deflected by a mountain, resulting in potential errors of many kilometres. The most effective way to overcome signal bounce during ground tracking is to take many bearings from several different places. When all signals appear to be coming from the same point then there is a good chance that the animal has been located correctly. However, if the signals are coming from a number of different points then signal bounce is likely still occurring.

Practical advice
• With a directional antenna, before starting to track an animal always make a 180o bearing (make sure you are going in the right way)
• If possible, establish some standard base points from where bearing can be taken. If possible these points should be positioned in open landscape and should have easy distinguishing characteristics (for repeated use).
• Take repeat bearings over a short time period, especially if the animal is active. It is always possible to not use some data points afterwards
• Get as close to the animal as possible.
• Always turn the gain and the volume down. This way changes in sound level (for example animal is leaving) are easier noticeable.